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Posts tagged “Pope

Popes: from St Peter to current

This list is compiled from articles in the Original Catholic Encyclopedia and is provided for your benefit.

The list is sortable by name (alpha) and by chronology.

Order Name Years Notes

1 Peter, Apostle, Saint Reigned 33-67

2 Linus, Saint Reigned c.67-76

3 Anacletus, Saint Reigned 76-88 aka Cletus

4 Clement I, Saint Reigned 88-97

5 Evaristus, Saint Reigned c.98- c.106 Aristus in the Liberian Catalogue

6 Alexander I, Saint Reigned c.106-115

7 Sixtus I, Saint Reigned 115-125 XYSTUS in the oldest documents

8 Telesphorus, Saint Reigned 125-136

9 Hyginus, Saint Reigned c.136-140

10 Pius I, Saint Reigned c.140-c.154

11 Anicetus, Saint Reigned c.157-168

12 Soter, Saint Reigned c.166-c.174

13 Eleutherius, Saint Reigned c.175-189

14 Victor I, Saint Reigned 189-c.198

15 Zephyrinus, Saint Reigned 198-217

16 Callistus I Reigned 218-c.222

17 Urban I Reigned 222-230

18 Pontian, Saint Reigned 230-235

19 Anterus, Saint Reigned 235-236 aka Anteros

20 Fabian, Saint Reigned 236-250

21 Cornelius Reigned 251-253

22 Lucius I, Saint Reigned 253-254

23 Stephen I, Saint Reigned 254-257

24 Sixtus II, Saint Reigned 257-258 XYSTUS in the oldest documents

25 Dionysius, Saint Reigned 260-268

26 Felix I, Saint Reigned 269-274

27 Eutychianus, Saint Reigned 275-283

28 Caius, Saint Reigned 283-296

29 Marcellinus, Saint Reigned 296-304

30 Marcellus I, Saint Reigned 308-309

31 Eusebius, Saint Reigned 309 or 310

32 Miltiades, Saint Reigned 311-314

33 Sylvester I, Saint Reigned 314-335

34 Mark, Saint Reigned 336 aka Marcus

35 Julius I, Saint Reigned 337-352

36 Liberius Reigned 352-366

37 Damasus I, Saint Reigned 366-383

38 Siricius, Saint Reigned 384-399

39 Anastasius I, Saint Reigned 399-401

40 Innocent I Reigned 401-417

41 Zosimus, Saint Reigned 417-418

42 Boniface I, Saint Reigned 418-422

43 Celestine I, Saint Reigned 422-432

44 Sixtus III, Saint Reigned 432-440 XYSTUS in the oldest documents

45 Leo I, Saint Reigned 440-461

46 Hilarus, Saint Reigned 461-468

47 Simplicius, Saint Reigned 468-483

48 Felix III (II), Saint Reigned 483-492

49 Gelasius I, Saint Reigned 492-496

50 Anastasius II Reigned 496-498

51 Symmachus, Saint Reigned 498-514

52 Hormisdas, Saint Reigned 514-523

53 John I, Saint Reigned 523-c.526

54 Felix IV (III) Reigned 526-530

55 Boniface II Reigned 530-532

56 John II Reigned 533-535

57 Agapetus I, Saint Reigned 535-536

58 Silverius, Saint Reigned 536-537

59 Vigilius Reigned 537-555

60 Pelagius I Reigned 556-561

61 John III Reigned 561-574

62 Benedict I Reigned 575-579

63 Pelagius II Reigned 579-590

64 Gregory I Saint Reigned 590-604

(the Great),

65 Sabinianus Reigned 604-606

66 Boniface III Reigned 607

67 Boniface IV Reigned 608-615

68 Deusdedit, Saint Reigned 615-618

69 Boniface V Reigned 619-625

70 Honorius I Reigned 625-638

71 Severinus Reigned 640

72 John IV Reigned 640-642

73 Theodore I Reigned 642-649

74 Martin I, Saint Reigned 649-655

75 Eugene I Reigned 655-657

76 Vitalian, Saint Reigned 657-672

77 Adeodatus, Saint Reigned 672-676

78 Donus Reigned 676-678

79 Agatho, Saint Reigned 678-681

80 Leo II, Saint Reigned 682-683

81 Benedict II Reigned 684-685

82 John V Reigned 685-686

83 Conon Reigned 686-687

84 Sergius I, Saint Reigned 687-701

85 John VI Reigned 701-705

86 John VII Reigned 705-707

87 Sisinnius Reigned 708

88 Constantine Reigned 708-715

89 Gregory II, Saint Reigned 715-731

90 Gregory III, Saint Reigned 731-741

91 Zachary, Saint Reigned 741-752

92 Stephen II Elected 752 died before his consecration; excluded from some lists

93 Stephen III (II) Reigned 752-757

94 Paul I Reigned 757-767

95 Stephen IV (III) Reigned 768-772

96 Adrian I Reigned 772-795

97 Leo III, Saint Reigned 795-816

98 Stephen V (IV) Reigned 816-817

99 Paschal I Reigned 817-824

100 Eugene II Reigned 824-827

101 Valentine Reigned 827

102 Gregory IV Reigned 827-844

103 Sergius II Reigned 844-847

104 Leo IV, Saint Reigned 847-855

105 Benedict III Reigned 855-858

106 Nicholas I, Saint Reigned 858-867

107 Adrian II Reigned 867-872

108 John VIII Reigned 872-882

109 Marinus I Reigned 882-884

110 Adrian III, Saint Reigned 884-885

111 Stephen VI (V) Reigned 885-891

112 Formosus Reigned 891-896

113 Boniface VI Reigned 896

114 Stephen VII (VI) Reigned 896-897

115 Romanus Reigned 897

116 Theodore II Reigned 897

117 John IX Reigned 898-900

118 Benedict IV Reigned 900-903

119 Leo V Reigned 903

120 Sergius III Reigned 904-911

121 Anastasius III Reigned 911-913

122 Lando Reigned 913-14

123 John X Reigned 914-928

124 Leo VI Reigned 928

125 Stephen VIII (VII) Reigned 929-931

126 John XI Reigned 931-936

127 Leo VII Reigned 936-939

128 Stephen IX (VIII) Reigned 939-942

129 Marinus II Reigned 942-946

130 Agapetus II Reigned 946-955

131 John XII Reigned 955-964

132 Leo VIII Reigned 964-965

133 Benedict V Reigned 964

134 John XIII Reigned 965-972

135 Benedict VI Reigned 973-974

136 Benedict VII Reigned 974-983

137 John XIV Reigned 983-984

138 John XV (XVI) Reigned 985-996

139 Gregory V Reigned 996-999

140 Sylvester II Reigned 999-1003

141 John XVII (XVIII) Reigned 1003

142 John XVIII (XIX) Reigned 1003-1009

143 Sergius IV Reigned 1009-1012

144 Benedict VIII Reigned 1012-1024

145 John XIX (XX) Reigned 1024-1032

146 Benedict IX Reigned 1032-1044

147 Sylvester III Reigned 1045

148 Benedict IX Reigned 1045

149 Gregory VI Reigned 1045-1046

150 Clement II Reigned 1046-1047

151 Benedict IX Reigned 1047-1048

152 Damasus II Reigned 1048

153 Leo IX, Saint Reigned 1049-1054

154 Victor II Reigned 1055-1057

155 Stephen X (IX) Reigned 1057-1058

156 Nicholas II Reigned 1058-1061

157 Alexander II Reigned 1061-1073

158 Gregory VII, Saint Reigned 1073-1085

159 Victor III, Blessed Reigned 1086-1087

160 Urban II, Blessed Reigned 1088-1099

161 Paschal II Reigned 1099-1118

162 Gelasius II Reigned 1118-1119

163 Callistus II Reigned 1119-1124

164 Honorius II Reigned 1124-1130

165 Innocent II Reigned 1130-1143

166 Celestine II Reigned 1143-1144

167 Lucius II Reigned 1144-1145

168 Eugene III Reigned 1145-1153

169 Anastasius IV Reigned 1153-1154

170 Adrian IV Reigned 1154-1159

171 Alexander III Reigned 1159-1181

172 Lucius III Reigned 1181-1185

173 Urban III Reigned 1185-1187

174 Gregory VIII Reigned 1187

175 Clement III Reigned 1187-1191

176 Celestine III Reigned 1191-1198

177 Innocent III Reigned 1198-1216

178 Honorius III Reigned 1216-1227

179 Gregory IX Reigned 1227-1241

180 Celestine IV Reigned 1241

181 Innocent IV Reigned 1243-1254

182 Alexander IV Reigned 1254-1261

183 Urban IV Reigned 1261-1264

184 Clement IV Reigned 1265-1268

185 Gregory X Reigned 1271-1276

186 Innocent V Reigned 1276

187 Adrian V Reigned July-August 1276

188 John XXI (XX) Reigned 1276-1277

189 Nicholas III Reigned 1277-1280

190 Martin IV Reigned 1281-1285

191 Honorius IV Reigned 1285-1287

192 Nicholas IV Reigned 1288-1292

193 Celestine V, Saint Reigned 1294

194 Boniface VIII Reigned 1294-1303

195 Benedict XI, Blessed Reigned 1303-1304

196 Clement V Reigned 1305-1314

197 John XXII Reigned 1316-1334

198 Benedict XII Reigned 1334-1342

199 Clement VI Reigned 1342-1352

200 Innocent VI Reigned 1352-1362

201 Urban V, Blessed Reigned 1362-1370

202 Gregory XI Reigned 1370-1378

203 Urban VI Reigned 1378-1389

204 Boniface IX Reigned 1389-1404

205 Innocent VII Reigned 1404-1406

206 Gregory XII Reigned 1406-1415

207 Martin V Reigned 1417-1431

208 Eugene IV Reigned 1431-1447

209 Nicholas V Reigned 1447-1455

210 Callistus III Reigned 1455-1458

211 Pius II Reigned 1458-1464

212 Paul II Reigned 1464-1471

213 Sixtus IV Reigned 1471-1484

214 Innocent VIII Reigned 1484-1492

215 Alexander VI Reigned 1492-1503

216 Pius III Reigned 1503

217 Julius II Reigned 1503-1513

218 Leo X Reigned 1513-1521

219 Adrian VI Reigned 1522-1523

220 Clement VII Reigned 1523-1534

221 Paul III Reigned 1534-1549

222 Julius III Reigned 1550-1555

223 Marcellus II Reigned 1555 (22 days)

224 Paul IV Reigned 1555-1559

225 Pius IV Reigned 1559-1565

226 Pius V, Saint Reigned 1566-1572

227 Gregory XIII Reigned 1572-1585

228 Sixtus V Reigned 1585-1590

229 Urban VII Reigned 1590

230 Gregory XIV Reigned 1590-1591

231 Innocent IX Reigned 1591

232 Clement VIII Reigned 1592-1605

233 Leo XI Reigned 1605

234 Paul V Reigned 1605-1621

235 Gregory XV Reigned 1621-1623

236 Urban VIII Reigned 1623-1644

237 Innocent X Reigned 1644-1655

238 Alexander VII Reigned 1655-1667

239 Clement IX Reigned 1667-1669

240 Clement X Reigned 1670-1676

241 Innocent XI Reigned 1676-1689

242 Alexander VIII Reigned 1689-1691

243 Innocent XII Reigned 1691-1700

244 Clement XI Reigned 1700-1721

245 Innocent XIII Reigned 1721-1724

246 Benedict XIII Reigned 1724-1730

247 Clement XII Reigned 1730-1740

248 Benedict XIV Reigned 1740-1758

249 Clement XIII Reigned 1758-1769

250 Clement XIV Reigned 1769-1774

251 Pius VI Reigned 1775-1799

252 Pius VII Reigned 1800-1823

253 Leo XII Reigned 1823-1829

254 Pius VIII Reigned 1829-1830

255 Gregory XVI Reigned 1831-1846

256 Pius IX Reigned 1846-1878

257 Leo XIII Reigned 1878-1903

258 Pius X Reigned 1903-1914

259 Benedict XV Reigned 1914-1922 Elected after the release of The 1914 Catholic Encylopedia

260 Pius XI Reigned 1922-1939 Elected after the release of The 1914 Catholic Encylopedia

261 Pius XII Reigned 1939-1958 Elected after the release of The 1914 Catholic Encylopedia

262 John XXIII, Blessed Reigned 1958-1963 Elected after the release of The 1914 Catholic Encylopedia

263 Paul VI Reigned 1963-1978 Elected after the release of The 1914 Catholic Encylopedia

264 John Paul I Reigned 1978 (33 days) Elected after the release of The 1914 Catholic Encylopedia

265 John Paul II Reigned 1978-2005 Elected after the release of The 1914 Catholic Encylopedia

266 Benedict XVI Reigned 2005-present Elected after the release of The 1914 Catholic Encylopedia

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Organ Transplants and Cloning

FR. WILLIAM SAUNDERS

I saw an article in the Post about the Holy Father condemning the cloning of human embryos for organ transplants. Would you please explain better the Church’s teaching on this subject?

 

In general, the Catholic Church approves organ transplantation, as reiterated by Pope John Paul II in an Address to the International Congress of Transplants on Aug. 29. Quoting from his encyclical The Gospel of Life, the Holy Father said, “…One way of nurturing a genuine culture of life is the donation of organs, performed in an ethically acceptable manner, with a view to offering a chance of health and even of life itself to the sick who sometimes have no other hope” (No. 86). This teaching echoes the Catechism: “Organ transplants conform with the moral law and can be meritorious if the physical and psychological dangers and risks incurred by the donor are proportionate to the good sought for the recipient” (No. 2296). To better understand this teaching, let’s take it one step at a time. Keep in mind that the issue was first clearly addressed by Pope Pius XII in the 1950s, and then has been refined with the advances in this field of medicine.

First a distinction is made between transplanting organs (including tissue) from a dead person to a living person, versus transplanting organs (including tissue) from a living person to another living person. In the first instance, when the organ donor is a dead person, no moral concern arises. Pope Pius XII taught, “A person may will to dispose of his body and to destine it to ends that are useful, morally irreproachable and even noble, among them the desire to aid the sick and suffering. One may make a decision of this nature with respect to his own body with full realization of the reverence which is due it…. This decision should not be condemned but positively justified” (Allocution to a Group of Eye Specialists, May 14, 1956).

Basically, if the organs of a deceased person, such as a kidney, a heart, or a cornea, can help save or improve the life of a living person, then such a transplant is morally good and even praiseworthy. Note that the donor must give his free and informed consent prior to his death, or his next of kin must do so at the time of their relative’s death: “Organ transplants are not morally acceptable if the donor or those who legitimately speak for him have not given their informed consent” (Catechism, No. 2296).

One caution needs to be made: The success of an organ transplant significantly depends upon the freshness of the organ, meaning that the transplant procedure must take place as soon as possible after the donor has died. However, the donor must not be declared dead prematurely or his death hastened just to utilize his organs. The moral criterion demands that the donor must be dead before his organs are used for transplantation. To avoid a conflict of interest, the Uniform Anatomical Gift Act requires that “The time of death be determined by the physician who attends the donor at his death, or, if none, the physician who certifies the death. This physician shall not participate in the procedures for removal or transplanting a part” (Section 7(b)). While this caution does not impact upon the morality of organ transplantation per se, the dignity of the dying person must be preserved, and to hasten his death or to terminate his life to acquire organs for transplant is immoral. Here again the Catechsim teaches, “It is morally inadmissible directly to bring about the disabling mutilation or death of a human being, even in order to delay the death of other persons” (No. 2296), a point underscored by the Holy Father in his recent address (cf. No. 4).

The transplantation of organs from a living donor to another person is more complicated. The ability to perform the first kidney transplant in 1954 caused a great debate among theologians. The debate focused on the principle of totality — whereby certain circumstances permit a person to sacrifice one part or function of the body for the interest of the whole body. For instance, a person may remove a diseased organ to preserve the health of his whole body, such as removing a cancerous uterus. These theologians, however, argued that a person cannot justify the removal of a healthy organ and incur the risk of future health problems when his own life is not in danger, as in the case of a person sacrificing a healthy kidney to donate to a person in need. Such surgery, they held, entails an unnecessary mutilation of the body and is thereby immoral.

Other theologians argued from the point of fraternal charity, namely that a healthy person who donates a kidney to a person in need is making a genuine act of sacrifice to save that person’s life. Such generosity is modeled after our Lord’s sacrifice of Himself on the cross, and reflects His teaching at the Last Supper: “This is my commandment: Love one another as I have loved you. There is no greater love than this: to lay down one’s life for one’s friends” (Jn 15:12-13). Such a sacrifice, these theologians held, is morally acceptable if the risk of harm to the donor, both from the surgery itself and the loss of the organ, is proportionate to the good for the recipient.

Moving from this reasoning, these “pro-transplant” theologians re-examined the principle of totality. They argued that while organ transplants from living donors may not preserve anatomical or physical integrity (i.e. there is a loss of a healthy organ), they do comply with a functional totality (i.e. there is the preservation of the bodily functions and system as a whole). For instance, a person can sacrifice one healthy kidney (a loss of anatomical integrity) and still be able to maintain health and proper bodily functions with the remaining kidney; such a donation would be morally permissible. Using the same reasoning, however, a person cannot sacrifice an eye to give to a blind person, because such an act impairs the bodily functions of the individual.

Pope Pius XII agreed with this understanding of charity and the broader interpretation of the principle of totality, and thereby declared organ transplants from living donors morally acceptable. He underscored the point that the donor is making a sacrifice of himself for the good of another person. Our Holy Father, Pope John Paul II, has also emphasized this point: A…Every organ transplant has its source in a decision of great ethical value: the decision to offer without reward a part of one’s own body for the health and well-being of another person’“ (Address to the Participants in a Congress on Organ Transplants, June 20 1991, No. 3). Here precisely lies the nobility of the gesture, a gesture which is a genuine act of love. It is not just a matter of giving away something that belongs to us but of giving something of ourselves . . .” (No. 3).

Nevertheless, the transplantation of organs from a living donor to another person must fulfill four criteria: (1) the risk involved to the donor in such a transplant must be proportionate to the good obtained for the recipient; (2) the removal of the organ must not seriously impair the donor’s health or bodily function; (3) the prognosis of acceptance is good for the recipient, and (4) the donor must make an informed and free decision recognizing the potential risks involved.

Having established the basic moral teaching governing organ transplants, we need to address several issues which impact upon their morality. While the advances of medical science have enabled the transplantation of organs with increasing success, certain procedures that have been introduced may be possible but not morally acceptable. What is technologically possible is not always morally good. In judging the morality of a procedure, one must maintain the dignity of the human person, who is both body and soul.

As Pope John Paul II taught, “An this area of medical science too the fundamental criterion must be the defense and promotion of the integral good of the human person, in keeping with that unique dignity which is ours by virtue of our humanity. Consequently, it is evident that every medical procedure performed on the human person is subject to limits: not just the limits of what is technically possible, but also limits determined by respect for human nature itself, understood in its fullness: ‘what is technically possible is not for that reason alone morally admissible’ (Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Donum Vitae, #4)” (Address to the International Congress on Transplants, No. 2).

One issue concerns the use of animal organs for transplantation to human beings, such as using the heart valve of a pig to replace a human heart valve. This kind of transplantation is called a xenotransplant. First addressed by Pope Pius XII in 1956, the Church maintains that such transplants are morally acceptable on three conditions: (1) the transplanted organ does not impair the integrity of the genetic or psychological identity of the recipient, (2) the transplant has a proven biological record of possible success, and (3) the transplant does not involve inordinate risk for the recipient. (Cf. Pius XII, Address to the Italian Association of Cornea Donors and to Clinical Oculists and Legal Medical Practitioners, May 14, 1956.)

A second issue concerns the use of organs or tissues from aborted children (such as those murdered through partial birth abortion procedures). Actually a lucrative organ “Harvesting” industry is developing which utilizes the organs and tissues of aborted fetuses. A critical point here is that these abortions are performed with the intention of utilizing the organs or tissues of the infant, and in direct conjunction with a particular recipient in mind.

Another facet of this issue is when a child is conceived naturally or through in vitro fertilization to obtain the best genetic match, and then born or even aborted simply for organs or tissues. For example, recently a couple conceived a child for the sole purpose of being a bone marrow donor for another sibling suffering from leukemia; while the conceived child determined to be a good match while still in the womb and was born, one must wonder if the child would have been aborted if he had not been a good match. To participate in an abortion to obtain organs, to conceive a child for organs, or to knowingly use organs from aborted fetuses is morally wrong.

This issue has even become more complicated with the technological research in cloning. Some researchers hope to grow tissue and even organs from stem cells retrieved from human embryos; however, to do so necessitates the destruction of the embryo. Since human life begins at conception and is sacred from that very moment, such destruction is immoral. Pope John Paul II, affirming consistent Catholic principles, asserted, A…These techniques, insofar as they involve the manipulation and destruction of human embryos, are not morally acceptable, even when their proposed goal is good in itself” (Address to International Congress on Transplants, No. 8). Basically, the end does not justify the means. However, the Holy Father encouraged scientists to pursue paths of research which involve using adult stem cells, and which avoid cloning and the use of embryonic cells. In sum, any research must respect the dignity of the human person from the moment of conception.

Another moral question involves the distribution and assignment of organs to waiting recipients. Essentially, the number of recipients exceeds the number of available organs for transplant. While no perfect system will ever exist, the plan of assignment should not be discriminatory (based on age, sex, race, social status, and the like) or utilitarian (based on work capacity, social usefulness, and the like) but should strive to recognize the intrinsic value of each person. Instead, the assignment of organs to donors should proceed on immunological and clinical factors.

Finally, whether someone can sell one of his own organs for transplantation is another issue. The answer is a definitive “No.” The selling of an organ violates the dignity of the human being, eliminates the criterion of true charity for making such a donation, and promotes a market system which benefits only those who can pay, again violating genuine charity. Pope John Paul II has repeatedly underscored this teaching: AA transplant, even a simple blood transfusion, is not like other operations. It must not be separated from the donor’s act of self-giving, from the love that gives life” (Address to the First International Congress of the Society for Organ Sharing, June 24, 1991) and “Accordingly, any procedure which tends to commercialize human organs or to consider them as items for exchange or trade must be considered morally unacceptable, because to use the body as an ‘object’ is to violate the dignity of the human person” (Address to the International Congress on Transplants, No. 3).

Therefore, organ donation is morally permissible under certain conditions. The Ethical and Religious Directives for Catholic Health Care Services provides the following guidance: “The transplantation of organs from living donors is morally permissible when such a donation will not sacrifice or seriously impair any essential bodily function and the anticipated benefit to the recipient is proportionate to the harm done to the donor. Furthermore, the freedom of the donor must be respected, and economic advantages should not accrue to the donor” (No. 30). Generally, in the case of donating organs after death, the gifts that God has given to us to use in this life — our eyes, hearts, liver, and so on — can be passed on to someone in need. In the case of donating organs while alive, such as giving a healthy kidney to a relative in need, the donor needs to weigh all of the implications; in charity, a potential donor may decide he can not offer an organ, such as if he were a parent and would not want to increase the risk of not being able to care for his own dependent children. Although organ donation is not mandatory, it is commendable as an act of charity.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSaunders, Rev. William. “The Role of Godparents.” Arlington Catholic Herald.This article is reprinted with permission from Arlington Catholic Herald.

 

THE AUTHOR

 Father William Saunders is dean of the Notre Dame Graduate School of Christendom College and pastor of Our Lady of Hope Parish in Sterling, Virginia. The above article is a “Straight Answers” column he wrote for the Arlington Catholic Herald. Father Saunders is also the author of Straight Answers, a book based on 100 of his columns and published by Cathedral Press in Baltimore.